She repeatedly says that the Shimerdas lack common sense, but at the same time she fails to realize that they are immigrants to a new country and have no experience with farming.
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She wants to give them things to help out, but she is irritated when Mrs. Shimerda acts as if she deserves help. In the end, she does help them, despite Mrs. Shimerda's demanding atttitude and inability to quickly adapt to the family's new environment. It is interesting, but not particularly surprising, that a lot of the cultural distance between the Shimerdas and the Burdens is played out in issues surrounding food.
In an earlier chapter, Grandmother criticizes Mrs. Shimerda for making bread that she perceives as being gray and sour, and in this chapter she is distrustful of the powdered mushrooms that the other woman gives her. As is often the case, differences in culture are often most noticeable in terms of what people eat, and though a good woman, Grandmother is no stranger to cultural prejudice.
Although the adult Jim is aware of this lack of understanding surrounding Bohemian culture, in recounting his childhood experiences he is careful to maintain a distant, reserved, and nonjudgmental tone. He does not criticize his grandmother for not understanding the Shimerdas' customs, and he even reveals his own failures in understanding them. The adult Jim presents both perspectives, and once again, it is due to Cather's narrative skill that she is able to believably manage this narrative juggling. Jake is supposed to go to Black Hawk to make the family's Christmas purchases, but it snows so much that it is decided that he shouldn't go.
The family has a country Christmas instead and makes everyone's gifts. On the day before Christmas, Jake brings the Shimerdas their Christmas gifts and returns with a Christmas tree. The family decorates it with gingerbread, popcorn, and candles. In addition, from a trunk containing all his cowboy possessions, Otto takes Christmas paper figures sent to him yearly from his mother in Austria. Speaking in the present, Jim relates that he can still see Otto and Jake exactly as they looked then. Though they looked fierce on the outside, he knew that they were actually very vulnerable.
They only knew how to fight, and though Otto loved children, he was destined to become a hardened, childless laborer. In this chapter Cather idealizes simple country living. Since it snows so much that Jake cannot go to town, they celebrate Christmas without any artificial city contrivances, and they have a great time.
Their Christmas gifts come from the heart, instead of being tokens of an overcommercialized society. They enjoy each other's company and conversation, something that is perhaps a rarity in today's modern civilization. By presenting such scenes of peace and harmony, Cather offers a subtle version of social criticism. Her views represent a quiet alternative to the bustle of modern industrialized society, but she is understated and balanced, never dogmatic, in her approach.
In depicting Jake and Otto as gruff, yet kind-hearted workers, Cather is going against the stereotype of the cowboy as hardened, ruthless desperado. Instead of being naturally rough, they become so because of their environment. They are forced to become violent and unemotional because of the difficulties of living solitary lives in the West, while at heart they are still dutiful sons and gentle, kind men.
On Christmas morning, Jim wakes up, and the whole family listens to Grandfather solemnly and simply make morning prayers. Grandfather's prayers always reflect his present thoughts, and Jim asserts that it is through them that one got to know his thoughts and feelings. That day they all do miscellaneous chores and play games, and Otto laboriously writes his annual Christmas letter to his mother. In late afternoon Mr. Shimerda comes over to thank them for all the gifts they gave his family. After escaping from the dreary dugout, he welcomes the Burden's home as an oasis of peace and order.
He rests there and is completely content. When Jim lights the Christmas tree, Mr. Shimerda kneels in prayer in front of it. As Protestants, Grandfather and Grandmother are a little uncomfortable but say nothing. Shimerda stays over for dinner and watches everyone's face intently. While leaving, he thanks Grandmother and makes the sign of the cross over Jim. After he leaves, Grandfather says, "The prayers of all good people are good.
This chapter is a continuation of the previous two chapters and builds on the theme of country harmony, as opposed to city discord. The Burdens live a simple life, with simple prayers, and they have everything they need simply by being together. City diversions would simply disrupt the cozy family circle they have created on the frontier. It is curious that neither Jim nor his grandparents comment on the fact that Mr. Shimerda celebrates Christmas with them, rather than with his family.
It becomes apparent exactly how much he values their company only in later chapters, when we discover how unhappy he is with his own home life. Shimerda's eagerness to spend Christmas with the Burdens indicates just how peaceful and idyllic the Burden household is, and while Jim may be exaggerating the happiness he felt as a child, he is not overstating the truth by very much. Though Jim's grandparents may not be the most progressive people in the world, they are remarkably tolerant of the Shimerdas' customs and religion.
Even though they are not entirely comfortable with Catholicism, they do nothing to offend Mr. Shimerda for his differing religious practices. Through her portrayal of such open- mindedness, Cather seems to be advocating a climate of general tolerance for different people and different customs.
Though she is trying to advance a particularly enlightened social vision, she is nevertheless a product of her times and cannot entirely break free from contemporary social prejudice. Shimerda had never been to the house before, and the entire time she looks at everything enviously and complains that the Burdens have so much more than she does. She asks Grandmother for a pot, which she gives to her. Jim is annoyed by Mrs. Shimerda, who lacks humility despite her misfortune. He misses playing the fiddle with his friends, and he had not wanted to come over originally.
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Shimerda wanted to come to America because she thought that Ambrosch would be able to become rich here. For three weeks it seems like it is almost spring. The bulls get into a fight across the fence between them and have to be separated. On January 20, Jim's eleventh birthday, however, a huge blizzard starts. It was the biggest storm in ten years, and Otto and Jack have to dig tunnels through the snow to get to the barn and the henhouse.
All the water is frozen, and as soon as they finish the chores, they have to start over with them again. Jim calls that day very strange and unnatural. The Shimerdas do not understand why the Burdens, who are rich, do not help them out more in adjusting to their new life, and this makes them seem arrogant and demanding. However, the problem seems to be more of communication than anything else. The Shimerdas do not know how to survive and prosper in their new country, but they also do not know enough English to ask for help and advice. Neither lazy nor unclean, they are simply unknowledgeable about farming life.
However, the Burdens do not understand how destitute and lost their neighbors are, and they help them out of charity rather than anything else. Despite all that Mrs. Shimerda heard in her homeland, she is not finding America to be the land of opportunity right now. The family is encountering difficulty and hardship quite unlike anything they had expected, and Cather's portrayal of them de-romanticizes the myth of America as the promised land.
However, as we shall see in later chapters, once the family gets used to their new life, through hard work they are able to get ahead and become successful. Though the novel is set around the turn of the twentieth century, Jim is surprised that the Shimerda family revolves around Ambrosch, the oldest son. Finally, in this chapter, the Burdens witness the largest snowstorm in a decade, and winter begins to unleash its full force on the Nebraska frontier.
Now nature becomes something that the family has to contend with, rather than simply admire and enjoy. On the 22nd Jim wakes up excited because it sound like there is a crisis going on downstairs. Otto and Jake look exhausted and cold, while Ambrosch is asleep on the bench. Grandfather tells them that Mr. Shimerda is dead and that Otto and Jake had gone over in the middle of the night with Ambrosch.
Shimerda had washed and shaved beforehand, had arranged his clothes neatly, and then shot himself in the mouth with a shotgun while lying down. According to Jake, however, Krajiek's axe fits precisely into the gash in Mr. Shimerda's face, and Krajiek was skulking around and acting guilty. The family argues a little about what happened, but there is nothing that they can do until a coroner arrives. Otto goes to Black Hawk to fetch the coroner, and Ambrosch devoutly prays the entire morning. Finally, Grandfather, Grandmother, Jake, and Ambrosch all leave to bring the Shimerdas clothing, while Jim is left alone.
Jim is excited to be responsible for all the chores and thinks that the life of Robinson Crusoe is boring in comparison to his. He imagines that Mr. Shimerda's ghost is resting in the house before it goes away to his homeland. He is not afraid and just thinks very quietly about him. When the family returns, Otto tells Jim that Mr. Shimerda is frozen solid outside in the barn and that the Shimerdas take turns praying over his body.
Ambrosch wants to find a priest immediately so that his father's soul can get out of Purgatory. Jim knows that Mr. Shimerda's soul will not be stuck in Purgatory and realizes that he was just very unhappy in life. Winter finally brings a horrible tragedy to the Shimerdas and the Burdens: Mr. Shimerda's suicide. While it may seem inexplicable why a loving, caring father, as Mr. Shimerda most decidedly was, would leave his family helpless and bereaved in the middle of the worst winter in ten years, his action is understandable when considered as a last, desperate attempt at communication. While Mr.
Shimerda was unable to make his family prosper, by killing himself he is making one final plea for help. His neighbors will literally have to take care of his family now and help them survive the winter and coming spring. They will know that the Shimerda situation is dire and will realize exactly how much assistance the family needs. Paradoxically, by killing himself and depriving his family of their head of household, he is ensuring that his wife and children will be thoroughly taken care of. While Jim is very respectful of Christianity and organized religion, in this chapter he experiences a feeling stronger than any religious sentiment he ever feels: the sense that Mr.
Shimerda's ghost is present in the house. He knows that Mr. Shimerda is homesick and through death, wanted to return to his homeland and the pleasant places he knew in life, like the Burden household. This sensation is so strong that Jim adamantly disbelieves Ambrosch's assertion that his father's soul is trapped in Purgatory. His awareness of Mr. Shimerda's presence in the house indicates how the closeness and depth of emotion between Jim and the Shimerdas. After returning from Black Hawk, Otto tells them that a coroner will arrive shortly but that it is impossible for the priest to come.
He brings with him a young, strong, and confident Bohemian man named Anton Jelinek, who tells Grandfather that it is very bad that a priest is unavailable. Jelinek tells about how, during a war with the Austrians in his native land, he helped the priest carry the Sacrament around to dying men. Everyone except them got really sick with cholera, and ever since he has appreciated the power of the Sacrament and wishes that Mr. Shimerda could receive it. Jelinek starts to break a road through the snow to the Shimerda's house, while Otto, who is the only cabinet- maker in the neighborhood, begins making a coffin.
Otto is a good carpenter, and the sawing and planing noises are pleasant in the house. The postmaster Mr. Bushy and some neighbors drop by to talk about the news, and Jim is excited because he is not used to people being so unusually talkative. Later in the day the postmaster returns to tell Grandmother that the Norwegians refuse to let Mr. Shimerda be buried in their graveyard. Grandmother is upset and vows to start a more "liberal-minded" American graveyard in the spring. The coroner decides that Mr.
Shimerda did in fact commit suicide, even though Krajiek is continuing to act like a guilty man. Krajiek probably just feels bad for being so ruthless and unhelpful. During dinner the family talks about how Mrs. Shimerda and Ambrosch want Mr. Nobody really understands, but they assume that there must be some Bohemian superstition about burying suicides at a crossroads. In the previous chapter, Jim is impressed by how devout Ambrosch is, and in this chapter he meets another pious young Bohemian, Anton Jelinek.
Even though Grandfather does not understand the value of the Catholic sacrament, he listens attentively when Jelinek tries to explain how much he respects his faith. Despite their religious differences, Grandfather and Jelinek are actively engaging in mutual discussion and learning something about the other's culture in doing so. Such depictions of tolerance and respectful engagement by Cather help advance her view that harmonious engagement is something one should actively strive for.
In contrast, the Norwegians exhibit a very tactless intolerance in refusing to allow Mr. Shimerda to be buried in their cemetery. When Otto makes Mr. Shimerda's coffin, it makes the entire house seem very pleasant and cheerful. Instead of being depressing, the coffin-making is very productive and expends a lot of creative energy. Rather than simply creating the box that contains Mr.
Shimerda in his death, Otto is fashioning a resting place for him in his new life. In this way, Mr. Shimerda's death can be seen as a beginning, rather than just an end. On the fifth day Mr. Shimerda is buried, but Jake and Jelinek have to chop him away from the pool of frozen blood surrounding him.
Once the neighbors arrive, it's time to start the funeral. Outside all the children except Yulka, who is too young to understand, cross themselves over their father's body. The coffin is closed and placed on a wagon, then taken to the grave. Shimerda asks Grandfather to make a prayer, and Jim says that it was so remarkable that he still remembers it now.
At Grandmother's suggestion to make the funeral seem less heathenish , Otto begins to sing "Jesus, Lover of my Soul," which Jim still associates with the funeral and the "white waste" of snow there. Jim relates that years later, the grave is still there, surrounded by a fence and marked by a cross. However, the roads do not pass over the grave but instead swerve around it.
Jim thinks of the grave as an island and is glad that wagons have to pass by it and realize that it's there. Jim appreciates Mr. Though the funeral is simple and performed somewhat haphazardly, it is poignant and still affects Jim as an adult. The fact that it lacks ceremony, ritual, and an official person to preside over it is a reflection of the kind of life that new settlers have to make on the frontier. In other words, new settlers like the Burdens and the Shimerdas do not really have any precedent or set procedure to follow, in the funeral as in other aspects of life, and they have to fashion an entirely new way of life out of remembered bits of their past.
For example, Otto sings the first hymn that comes to mind when asked to do so and Grandfather improvises his prayer, yet the ceremony as a whole is intense and perfect the way it is. The act of creating something that is new and unique, though possibly a little disjointed and disorganized, renders the product beautiful. Spring is everywhere, and you can just tell that it's there. People are burning their pastures before the new grass starts to grow, and the smell pervades the prairie.
Neighbors are helping the Shimerdas a lot and extending them credit, so now they have a new log house, a windmill, and farm animals. Shimerda is very suspicious of everyone and thinks that people are trying to cheat her. She is proud of how much work she can do and says she doesn't want to go to school because she is happy to be working with Ambrosch like a man. As he helps her with some chores, she makes him promise to tell her the things he learns in school and not to forget her father, who also went to school.
Jim stays for dinner but is not having a good time. He knows that Ambrosch is overworking her and that people are gossiping about it, and he imagines how sad her father would be if he were alive. After the death of Mr. Shimerda and the hardship of winter, spring, life, and rebirth come to the land. Everything is blooming, and the Shimerdas are learning how to farm the land and are beginning to thrive. Thus, Mr. Shimerda's death just becomes a part of the life cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.
The burning of the grass becomes a symbol of the ever-changing life cycle. At the same time, however, in his physical descriptions of her, he greatly admires and eroticizes her physical strength and masculine vitality. As usual, however, Jim never explicitly states his feelings, which are nevertheless apparent and implied. In an earlier chapter, Mr. He recounts how the Burdens and Shimerdas were further estranged that spring. Jim and Jake went to the Shimerdas to retrieve a horse-collar that Ambrosch had borrowed but not returned. Ambrosch is surly and gives Jake a collar in very poor condition.
The two men get into a scuffle, with Ambrosch fighting unfairly and Jake knocking him down. Shimerda threatens with the law. While leaving, Jim and Jake express their distrust of foreigners and say they're just not the same as other people. Grandfather simply laughs at the story and tells Jake to go to town and pay his fine. Jake happens to sell a pig at the same time, and the Shimerdas mock him because they think he needed to sell it in order to have enough money to pay the fine. Despite the feud, the Shimerdas are always respectful to Grandfather, who gives them a lot of helpful advice and helps them when they have a problem with their horse.
When he goes to the Shimerdas to ask, he graciously gives Mrs. Shimerda the cow that she has purchased on credit, and she falls to her knees and kisses his hand. Afterwards, the feud between the two families is forgotten, although Mrs. Shimerda wants to have the last word. This chapter paints Ambrosch as a brutish, somewhat selfish creature that the reader simply cannot sympathize with. Jim's reaction to the Shimerdas in this chapter is somewhat uncharacteristic. In July the heat comes, and the corn grows fabulously. Jim notes that his grandfather has already predicted that in the future the American Midwest will produce enough corn for the rest of the world.
She prefers to work outside like a man and is proud of her arm muscles. It is pleasant, and Jim asks her why she can't always be herself and why sometimes she tries to be like Ambrosch. She answers that if she lived with Jim in the Burden household, life would be easy and she would be different. However, she predicts that life will be hard for her and her family. She seems more independent, carefree, and sure of herself, and she appreciates the sense of added physical strength that she is acquiring.
Afterwards, things will change, and the two will no longer be innocent children exploring the country for the first time.
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The Burdens sell their farm to the Widow Steavens and buy a house at the very edge of town. Otto decides to go West, and Jake follows him, even though the Burdens think he is too kind and trusting to live on the frontier. Jake and Otto help the Burdens move to the town, and Jim only hears of them once after that, when they are working in a mine. Black Hawk is a nice, clean little town with a river that reminds Jim of the country.
Soon the Burden family feels like town people, and Jim learns boyish ways at school. Country neighbors coming to town would generally stay with them at their home, although Ambrosch only came alone, wouldn't stay long, and wouldn't tell them much about his family. In this section of the novel, Jim and his family make the transition from country to city.
However, even though they are changing locale, they still see the people they knew in the country. Though Jim misses the country, he seems to realize that he must move to the city in order to eventually get ahead in the world. He can only get an education and meet important connections if he's living in the city, and city life thus entails more responsibility than his carefree, harmonious existence in the country did.
However, it is important to remember that city life is essential only if one is attempting to attain a certain kind of financial and worldly success. Whereas before people were gossiping about her because she was doing so, now the farmers respect her for her industry and reliability. Her productivity becomes the measure of her worth, regardless of her gender.
Jim begins this chapter by describing their Norwegian neighbors, the Harlings. Harling is very successful and frequently away on business, and his wife generally runs the household. She is short, sturdy, and jolly. The oldest daughter Frances helps her father with his business and is trusted around the countryside because of her understanding of financial matters. When the Harlings' cook leaves, Grandmother persuades Mrs.
Afterwards, Jim and the grandmother go hear what Mrs. Harling has to say. Grandmother then tells a brief history of the Shimerda family. Jim's world at this time is an essentially female-dominated space, as he spends a lot of time with strong, independent women: his grandmother, Mrs. Jim sympathizes with these women, who he clearly admires and respects. Harling is responsible for running her household in her husband's absence and creates a lot of joy in the lives of Jim and her children.
Though she does not have any real occupation, her role as a mother and surrogate mother to Jim is worthy of respect and much appreciated by Jim. These two Harling women exemplify female strength and initiative, and for this reason, Cather's work can be considered progressive and pro-feminist. Women like Frances can have the responsibilities usually granted only to men, but such a lifestyle should be a matter of personal choice.
If women like Mrs. Harling choose to raise a family, they should be celebrated for doing that too, as it is clearly a pursuit to be admired. In contrast, Ambrosch, the Shimerdas' male head of household, is selfish and not worthy of respect. The Harling household is always very pleasant, except when Mr. Harling is at home. He likes to have everything quiet, and he makes Mrs. Harling devote all her attention to him. Later Jim realizes how important Mrs. Harling's presence in their lives was.
Jim thinks that Mr. Harling is an arrogant man and walks around feeling powerful all the time. Whenever Mr. Harling is not around, the house is loud with a lot of music. Harling is very serious about playing the piano. In this chapter Cather offers a dramatic example of how marriage can be stifling to women. Although the previous chapter sets Mrs. Harling up as someone to be admired, in this chapter all her good qualities become invisible when she is forced to minister to her husband. Even though she is a cheerful person who enjoys life and loves music, she becomes simply her husband's caretaker when he is around.
Though Cather is not condemning the institution of marriage, through passages such as these, she is implying that marriage is a bad, confining thing for women when it is not based on a relationship of equality. In addition, since it is easy for women's needs to become secondary to those of her husband, marriage should be a personal choice, not an inevitable destiny.
This theme of questioning marriage is further developed in the chapters concerning Lena Lingard. Lena is going to work in town for Mrs. Thomas the dressmaker. Harling warns Lena to be serious about her work and not go gallivanting around town like a lot of the country girls do when they come to town.
Harling might not have approved of Lena's being there. Jim then proceeds to recount the town gossip surrounding Lena. As a country girl, Lena was wild and extremely pretty, yet gentle and feminine. An unlucky man named Ole Benson, who was married to Crazy Mary, became enamored of her and used to sit in the fields all day watching her plow in her rags.
After being urged to go to church, Lena finally appears one day, looking grown up and very beautiful. Crazy Mary continued to harass her by chasing her around in the fields with a knife, and one day Lena tried to escape by hiding out at the Shimerdas.
Afterwards, Mrs. Shimerda scolded her, but Lena mildly said that it wasn't her fault and that she couldn't stop Ole Benson from sitting where he wanted to. In this chapter we are introduced to Lena Lingard, who knows what she wants to do with her life. She sees marriage as a hindrance and a burden, and she is determined to remain unmarried in order to become a successful dressmaker.
She believes that by remaining single she will be able to answer to herself only and to better support her mother, and she ends up doing just that. She is able to surpass her bad reputation through determination, hard work, and independence, though no one expects her to succeed.
When Jim meets Lena later in college, he casually dates her and even believes that in doing so, he is saving her from pregnancy and a stifling marriage. She farms the land, which nurtures her until she grows into a voluptuous and fertile young woman. And it is fitting that Ole Benson becomes obsessed with her as she is working the soil, alone in her fields. Jim frequently meets Lena downtown, and they used to walk home together and talk.
Lena tells him about a hotel called the Boys' Home where she and Tiny Soderball another hired country girl would listen to the entertainment being put on for traveling salesmen. The traveling men would give Tiny gifts. One day Jim meets Lena and her young brother Chris going Christmas shopping. Chris shows all the presents he got for his family members and tries to decide which handkerchief to get his mother.
After Chris goes back home, Lena tears up a little bit and confesses how homesick she gets. In this chapter we see the toll that Lena's independence takes on her. She desperately misses her family, but she must remain alone in town, without her family as a base of support, if she wishes to make enough money to learn a trade. We also get a sense of the distractions that the town holds for young girls like Lena. While going to visit traveling salesmen must surely be interesting for bored young women, it is also something that could threaten their future if they're not careful.
In searching for diversions, young women like Lena run the risk of falling in love, getting pregnant, or acquiring bad reputations. Thus, while Lena has the freedom to pursue her own goals, she also faces a number of difficulties that independent single men simply do not. It is winter again, and it seems like the cold, bleak light of the winter is the light of truth.
Winter is like punishment for the summer. The streets become more and more deserted, as people run from building to building and stay in their warm homes. Jim would often stop in at the Harlings, and if Mr. A tramp came over and offered to help out. Frances remembers the story also and how the only thing found on the tramp was a poem. Harling are very similar in nature: they are honest, independent, and strong people who like children and who take pride in keeping a good household.
During winter, people have to try hard just to survive, and they are able to focus only on the bare necessities, like keeping warm and eating enough food. For this reason, Jim calls the light of winter the light of truth. In winter there are no illusions; all is stripped away in the name of basic survival.
Jim wanders the streets alone and doesn't speak to anyone since everyone is preoccupied with keeping warm. Although there are more people in the city than in the country, it is just as easy, and perhaps even easier, to feel alone in the city. In the country, there was only Jim, his grandparents, Otto, and Jake, so they all appreciated each other's company, but in the city, because there is less need to become attached to particular people, people end up feeling perhaps more isolated. However, Jim finds his refuge of coziness and warmth with the Harlings, who function as a surrogate family for Jim.
There he can play with a lot of children his own change and feel the maternal presence of both Mrs. As noted earlier, Mrs. Jim is bored of winter by March. During that month the only exciting thing that happens is when Blind d'Arnault, a negro pianist, comes to play at the Boys' Home on a Saturday night.
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The atmosphere is free and relaxed, particularly because the proprietor, the snobbish and proper Mrs. Gardener, is not present. Blind d'Arnault comes in to play for the men, and Jim describes him in racialized terms. Jim thinks he is the happiest- looking person he has seen since leaving Virginia. After swaying back and forth on the piano bench, the mulatto plays negro tunes.
Jim recounts Blind d'Arnault's story: When he was three, he lost his vision. His mother named him Samson and hid him away because he was ugly and dim-witted. Samson used to go listen to his mistress Miss d'Arnault practice the piano, and one day he stole into the house and began to play the piano. When he was discovered, he had a violent fit, but afterwards his mistress let him play the piano. Samson became a negro prodigy who played barbarously but in a way that was somehow more real.
Harrison to persuade the patients in the mental hospital to join the cult to make the Recreator. Diane Guerrero got the most to do in this episode. It shines a light on her troubled past and her abuse in the mental hospital. There is a sense of heightened reality that helps and Guerrero brings a lot of pathos to each of her personas so that the character is greater than the sum of her idiosyncratic parts.
DC Universe. DC Universe Diane Guerrero got the most to do in this episode. Various musings: Is Kipling aping Constantine? The similarities are striking! Retrieved 1 August Archived from the original on 21 June East Anglian Daily Times. Daily Telegraph. BBC Norfolk. The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 June Norfolk Heritage. Home Office. Amner Social Club. Vanity Fair. The Norwegian Royal Household. The Foreigner. Leonard Cheshire Disability.
Life Magazine : Archived from the original on 9 September Retrieved 9 September Aslet, Clive Landmarks of Britain. Battiscombe, Georgiana Queen Alexandra. London: Constable. Cahill, Kevin Who Owns Britain. Edinburgh: Canongate. Cornforth, John Dixon, Roger; Muthesius, Stefan Victorian Architecture. Eden, Clarissa Cate Haste ed. Feuchtwanger, Edward London: Hambledon Continuum.
Franklin, Jill The Gentleman's Country House and its Plan: — London: Routledge. Girouard, Mark The Victorian Country House. Historic Houses of Britain. London: Artus Publishing. Hall, Michael London: Reed International Books. Hattersley, Roy The Edwardians. London: Abacus. Jenkins, Simon England's Thousand Best Houses. London: Penguin Books. Jones, Nigel Architecture of England, Scotland, and Wales. Judd, Denis George VI. London: I. King, Greg Lascelles, Alan Duff Hart-Davis ed. Lees-Milne, James Harold Nicolson: A Biography — Mackworth-Young, Robin; Ransom, Roger Norwich, UK: Jarrold Publishing.
Matson, John Messent, Claude J. The Architecture on the Royal Estate of Sandringham. Norwich, UK: Self-published. Nicolson, Harold Nigel Nicolson ed. Diaries and Letters: — London: Collins. Palmer, Alan The Kaiser: Warlord of the Second Reich. London: Phoenix Books. Pevsner, Nikolaus ; Wilson, Bill Norfolk 2: North-West and South.
The Buildings Of England. Physick, John; Darby, Michael Margate, Kent: Eyre and Spottiswoode Ltd. Plumptre, George Edward VII. Pope-Hennessy, James Hugo Vickers ed. The Quest for Queen Mary. Rhodes James, Robert